Wednesday, April 9, 2014

Creating a developmental chroot system on Debian Linux

Lately, I've been trying many possibilities with chroot virtual systems. I found many uses with chroot: to create a live CD, to create a chrooted Web server, and to create a VNC desktop server. Now I want to create a temporary, disposable chroot for the purpose of compiling software.

This time I am going to create the chroot under /srv/develop, so I make the directory first.

mkdir /srv/develop

I install a minimal Debian system into /srv/develop.

apt-get install cdebootstrap-static
cdebootstrap-static --allow-unauthenticated --arch=i386 --flavour=minimal stable /srv/develop

Then, I create essential device files in /srv/develop/dev.

cd /srv/develop/dev

I mount proc and devpts for chroot.

mount -t proc -o nodev,noexec,nosuid proc /srv/develop/proc
mount --bind /dev/pts /srv/develop/dev/pts

I chroot into /srv/develop.

chroot /srv/develop

I type some commands to fix minor issues.

ln -s /proc/mounts /etc/mtab
dpkg --purge cdebootstrap-helper-rc.d

I check /etc/apt/sources.list and update the apt-get database.

apt-get update

Then, I run the following comand to install the basic compiler suite.

apt-get --no-install-recommends install binutils bison bzip2 flex gcc g++ gettext less libtool make patch perl pkg-config python texinfo vim-tiny wget whiptail xz-utils

Now I am ready for some basic coding and compiling. If I am really serious, I may install a full-blown GUI IDE. However, for now I just want to compile something quickly without messing up the main system, and then destroy the chroot.

Also Read

Friday, April 4, 2014

To Build a MinGW-w64 GCC toolchain

Let's build a MinGW-w64 GCC toolchain. It's going to be fun.

  1. Install MinGW-w64 as shown in this post. If you are going to build 32-bit applications, install MinGW-w64 for Windows 32. If you are going to build 64-bit applications, install MinGW-w64 for Windows 64.

    Also, install MSYS. Then, double-click on the batch file MSYS.BAT to start MSYS.

  2. Download the latest MinGW-w64 release tarball or SVN tarball. To download the SVN tarball, open this link and click on the “Download Snapshot” link.

    Wait a minute, and you'll receive a ZIP file. Using WinZip or 7-zip, unpack the ZIP file into the HOME folder (say, E:\mingw32\msys\1.0\home\User).

    Before compiling anything, set some environment variables.

    export CPPFLAGS='-I/mingw/include'
  3. Enter the MinGW-w64 source directory that you just unzipped. Install MinGW-w64 headers as follows:

    cd mingw-w64-code-6558-truck/mingw-w64-headers
    mkdir build
    cd build
    ../configure --build=i686-w64-mingw32 --prefix=/mingw/i686-w64-mingw32

    For 64-bit MinGW-w64, the configure command is different.

    ../configure --build=x86_64-w64-mingw32 --prefix=/mingw/x86_64-w64-mingw32

    Then, type:

    make install
  4. Compile GMP. The source is available here. I downloaded the latest release version (gmp-6.0.0a.tar.bz2).

    ./configure --prefix=/mingw --build=i686-w64-mingw32 --enable-cxx --disable-shared
    make CPPFLAGS="-fexceptions"
    make install

    For a 64-bit build, use --build=x86_64-w64-mingw32 instead.

  5. Compile MPFR. The source is available here. For a 64-bit build, specify --build=x86_64-w64-mingw32 instead.

    ./configure --prefix=/mingw --build=i686-w64-mingw32 --disable-shared
    make install
  6. Build MPC. For a 64-bit build, use --build=x86_64-w64-mingw32 instead.

    ./configure --prefix=/mingw --build=i686-w64-mingw32 --disable-shared
    make install
  7. This step is not mandatory, so you can skip it. Build isl or PPL, and ClooG. For ISL or PPL, run:

    ./configure --prefix=/mingw --build=i686-w64-mingw32 --disable-shared
    make install

    For ClooG, run:

    ./configure --prefix=/mingw --build=i686-w64-mingw32 --disable-shared --with-isl=system --with-host-libstdcxx='-lstdc++ -lsupc++'
    make install
  8. Build binutils. The source is available here.

    mkdir build
    cd build
    ../configure --prefix=/mingw --build=i686-w64-mingw32 --disable-multilib --disable-nls --disable-werror --with-sysroot=/mingw
    make install

    To build 64-bit binutils, specify --build=x86_64-w64-mingw32 instead.

  9. Build the gcc core. GCC snapshot sources are available here. It is recommended to create a temporary build directory for gcc.

    mkdir -p build/gcc
    cd build/gcc
    ../../configure --prefix=/mingw --build=i686-w64-mingw32 --disable-multilib --disable-shared --disable-nls --disable-werror --with-sysroot=/mingw
    mkdir /mingw/mingw/include
    make all-gcc
    make install-gcc

    To build 64-bit gcc, specify --build=x86_64-w64-mingw32 instead.

  10. Build the C Runtime libraries. We need to create another temporary build directory. At the top of the GCC source tree:

    mkdir -p build/crt
    cd build/crt
    ../../configure --prefix=/mingw/i686-w64-ming32 --build=i686-w64-mingw32 --enable-sjlj-exceptions --disable-multilib --with-sysroot=/mingw --with-gmp=/mingw --with-mpfr=/mingw --with-mpc=/mingw

    Specify --prefix=/mingw/x86_64-w64-mingw32 --build=x86_64-w64-mingw32 instead to build 64-bit MinGW-w64. Before running make, copy everything from C:\MinGW\include and C:\MinGW\i686-w64-mingw32\include to gcc-4.7.2\libcpp\include. This will help avoid getting missing header errors later.

    Create a folder /mingw/i686-w64-mingw32/lib.

    mkdir -p /mingw/i686-w64-mingw32/include
    mkdir -p /mingw/i686-w64-mingw32/lib

    If building a 64-bit MinGW-w64, then

    mkdir -p /mingw/x86_64-w64-mingw32/include
    mkdir -p /mingw/x86_64-w64-mingw32/lib

    Then, run make.

    make CPPFLAGS="-fpermissive"
    make install

    If you get an error during configure due to missing libgcc.a, copy it from /mingw/lib/gcc/i686-w64-mingw32/4.7.0.

  11. Build the rest of GCC. Go back to the GCC build directory.

    cd build/gcc
    make CPPFLAGS="-fpermissive"
    make install
  12. Use strip.exe on executable files (*.exe) and dynamic libraries (*.dll) to reduce the size of the files.

    cd /mingw/bin
    strip *.exe *.dll
    cd /mingw/libexec/gcc/x86_64-w64-mingw32/4.7.2
    strip *.exe *.dll
    cd /mingw/x86_64-w64-mingw32/bin
    strip *.exe

Thursday, April 3, 2014

Using hsetroot to tile a wallpaper with gradient

hsetroot is a pretty neat tool for Linux desktop that I like better than other tools. One particular feature I love about hsetroot is adding a fading tint to the background wallpaper. For example, let's say you want to place the following picture on the desktop, nicely tiled.

The hsetroot command to use is:

hsetroot -tile thumb10.jpg

The desktop screen after running that command comes out like this.

To add a varying tint to the desktop background, use the -add, -gradient and -alpha options with hsetroot. The -add option is used to specify colors and the -gradient option is used to specify the direction of gradient, in the range 0 to 360. The alpha option in the range 0 to 255 specifies how transparent the background wallpaper should be. For example, you could run the following hsetroot command:

hsetroot -tile thumb10.jpg -alpha 127 -add \#b5d045 -add \#81c0c5 -gradient 240

And it comes out like this:

Also Read

Wednesday, April 2, 2014

Adding applications to chrooted VNC desktop

After successfully setting up a chrooted VNC desktop server in /srv/vnc, as described previously, I am installing additional applications into the chroot system.

  1. Again, I enter the /srv/vnc chroot environment.

    chroot /srv/vnc
  2. I update the /etc/apt/sources.list file to include security updates.

    deb stable main contrib non-free
    deb stable-updates main contrib non-free
    deb stable/updates main contrib non-free

    Then, I update existing packages that have been installed.

    apt-get update
    apt-get upgrade
  3. I run the following command to add my favorite applications, including IceWeasel and LibreOffice.

    apt-get --no-install-recommends install evince-gtk filezilla genisoimage gtk-gnutella hunspell-en-us icedove iceweasel icedtea-7-plugin idesk libmysql-java libreoffice-base libreoffice-calc libreoffice-impress libreoffice-math libreoffice-writer openssh-client p7zip-full plzip rar ttf-wqy-microhei xarchiver

    I run apt-get again to add some more applications without "--no-install-recommends" option.

    apt-get install graphicsmagick xfonts-mathml
  4. Then, I install some Java applications that I like.

  5. I put some fonts into the /usr/local/share/fonts folder to support foreign languages. The fonts I use include Aegean, Akshar Unicode, Dilyana, Everson Mono, Gentium Plus, GohaTibebZemen, Hapaxber, IPA Mincho, KhmerKep/KhmWatPhnom, Malithi Web, Myanmar 3, New Athena, Nuosu SIL, Phaisarn, Nastaliq, PhetSarath, Sakal Bharati, Saweri, Seoul, Simplified Baosong 2, TCRC Youtso, etc. Then, I run:

    fc-cache -s

    That's it. My VNC server is almost complete.

Also Read

Monday, March 31, 2014

Creating a chrooted VNC desktop server

I want to create a chrooted Linux system that serves X11 desktop applications through VNC. I'm going to write down the steps to achieve the goal.

  1. I'll put the virtual Linux system under /srv/vnc. So I create the /srv/vnc directory.

    mkdir /srv/vnc
  2. Then, I install cdebootstrap-static.

    apt-get install cdebootstrap-static

    I run the following command to install a minimal Debian system in /srv/vnc.

    cdebootstrap-static --allow-unauthenticated --arch=i386 --flavour=minimal stable /srv/vnc
  3. I mount /proc, /dev and /dev/pts inside /srv/vnc.

    mount -t proc -o nodev,noexec,nosuid proc /srv/vnc/proc
    mount -t devtmpfs -o size=8192k,nr_inodes=64k none /srv/vnc/dev
    mkdir /dev/pts
    mount --bind /dev/pts /srv/vnc/dev/pts
  4. I check the file /srv/vnc/etc/apt/sources.list.

    deb stable main contrib non-free
    deb stable-updates main contrib non-free
    deb stable/updates main contrib non-free
  5. Then, I run chroot on /srv/vnc.

    chroot /srv/vnc

    Now, I am inside the /srv/vnc chroot.

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